John R. Bolton, a diplomat and lawyer, is a senior fellow of the American Enterprise Institute (AEI), where he researches U.S. foreign and national security policy. From August, 2005 to December, 2006 he served as the U.S. Permanent Representative to the United Nations, and from 2001 to 2005 he was Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security. Before occupying these positions, Ambassador Bolton worked as an attorney for Covington and Burling LLP, and Lerner, Reed, Bolton & McManus LLP; served in the U.S. Agency for International Development and the Department of Justice; and was senior vice president of AEI. An outspoken advocate of a muscular U.S. foreign policy, he has published a critique of President Obama’s foreign policy and, more recently, a memoir of his time at the United Nations, titled, Surrender Is Not an Option: Defending America at the United Nations (2008). Ambassador Bolton earned a B.A. and a J.D. from Yale University.