Paul Wolfowitz is a scholar at the American Enterprise Institute. He spent more than three decades in public service and higher education. During the Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush administrations, Dr. Wolfowitz served in the defense department and the foreign service, rising to under secretary of defense for policy and U.S. Ambassador to Indonesia. In the George W. Bush administration, he served as president of the World Bank and deputy secretary of defense. As ambassador to Indonesia, Dr. Wolfowitz became known for his advocacy of reform and political openness and for his interest in development issues, which dates back to his doctoral dissertation on water desalination in the Middle East. At AEI, Dr. Wolfowitz works on development issues. He holds a B.A. from Cornell and a Ph.D. from the University of Chicago.